Neptune was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion. He is the counterpart of the .. A bronze mirror from Tuscania dated to BC also in the Vatican Museums (Museo Gregoriano Etrusco E. S. 1. 76). Nethuns is talking Juan Pascual de Mena, Fuente de Neptuno, Madrid (–). Constantino Brumidi. The Fe pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect . 40Ar/39Ar dating of Ga magnetizations from the Sao Francisco and .. E-mail: [email protected], E-mail: [email protected], E- mail: for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. SURFACE DATING OF RED SANDSTONE FROM THE DANXIASHAN of action for people, planet and prosperity and recognizes that .. Gb. Dal Piaz ( ) illustrated the pluton field relationships showing that the Adamello superunit was Email: [email protected] – website.
In Roman religion they are often female. In later times under Hellenising influence they came to be considered as separate deities and consorts of the god. Salacia would impersonate the gushing, overbearing waters and Venilia the still or quietly flowing waters.
Varro connects the first to salum, sea, and the second to ventus, wind. He devotes one full chapter of his De Civitate Dei to mocking the inconsistencies inherent in the theological definition of the two entitites: Elsewhere he writes that Salacia and Venilia are indeed the same entity. Accordingly, Salacia would represent the forceful and violent aspect of gushing and overflowing water, Venilia the tranquil, gentle aspect of still or slowly flowing water.
Thence they interpret Salacia as personifying lust and Venilia as related to venia, the attitude of ingraciating, attraction, connected with love and desire for reproduction. Preller remarked a significant aspect of Venilia mentioning that she was recorded in the indigitamenta also as a deity of longing, desire. He thinks this fact would allow to explain the theonym in the same way as that of Venus.
Salacia would be the parallel of Thetis as the mother of Achilles, while Venilia would be the mother of Turnus and Iuturnawhom she mothered with Daunus king of the Rutulians. According to another source Venilia would be the partner of Januswith whom she mothered the nymph Canens loved by Picus. A legendary king Venulus was remembered at Tibur and Lavinium. Petersmann has proposed a rather different interpretation of the theology of Neptune.
Similar to Caelushe would be the father of all living beings on Earth through the fertilising power of rainwater. This hieros gamos of Neptune and Earth would be reflected in literature, e. V 14 pater Neptunus. The virile potency of Neptune would be represented by Salacia derived from salax, salio in its original sense of salacious, lustful, desiring sexual intercourse, covering.
Salacia would then represent the god's desire for intercourse with Earth, his virile generating potency manifesting itself in rainfall. While Salacia would denote the overcast sky, the other character of the god would be reflected by his other paredra Venilia, representing the clear sky dotted with clouds of good weather. Reminiscences of this double aspect of Neptune would be found in Catullus What are you preparing, father Neptune? Sharing this same approach Fowler considered Salacia the personification of the virile potency that generated a Latin people, parallel with Mars, Saturn, Janus and even Jupiter among other Latins.
Such a feature is a reflection of his own chronic, violent, brutal nature as earth-quaker, as well as of the link of the horse with springs, i.
Neptune does not show any direct equine character or linkage. On the other hand, Roman god Consus was associated with horses: On the day of his summer festival August 21the Consualia aestiva, it was customary to bring horses and mules in procession crowned with flowers and then hold equine races in the Circus. It appears these games had a rustic and archaic character: The episode might bear a reflection of the traditional sexual licence of such occasions. The fact the two festivals of Consus were followed after an equal interval of four days by the two festivals of Ops Opeconsivia on August 25 and Opalia on December 19 testifies to the strict relationship between the two deities as both pertaining to agricultural plenty, or in Dumezilian terminology to the third function.
Tertullian De Spectaculis V 7 states that according to Roman tradititon Consus was the god who had advised Romulus on the abduction of the Sabines because of his quality of god of hidden counsels and quotes an inscription that was on the southern meta of the circus corroborating his assertion: Consus is powerful in counsel, Mars in war, the Lares in meeting. Von Blumenthal and G. Radke have proposed to read consivio instead of consilio, though this correction is not generally accepted: Moreover, the etymology of Poseidon, understood as from Posis lord, husband and De grain or Earth, may have contributed to the identification of Consus with Neptune.
He was certainly a deity of agrarian plenty and of fertility. Etruscans were particularly fond of horse races. In the past it has been believed that the Roman theonym derived from Etruscan but more recently this view has been rejected. His name is to be found on two cases of the Piacenza Livernamely case 7 on the outer rim and case 28 on the gall-bladder, plus once in case 22 along with Tinia.
This last location tallies with Pliny the Elder's testimony that the gall-bladder is sacred to Neptune. The presence of the Lar Omnium Cunctalis might be connected with the theology of Neptune as a god of fertility, human included, while Neverita is a theonym derived from an archaic form of Nereus and Nereidbefore the fall of the digamma. The major CaO 4.
The principal mafic mineral is K2O 2. Hornblende granodiorite LOI 0. Very good Li 96 The hornblende granodiorites are massive to weakly Sc They are light to somewhat dark grey, and medium- to V The most com- Zn 94 Ga The enclaves vary in shape from Sr large layered to small elongated and slightly rounded bodies Y Gneissic biotite granite In 0.
Typical example is sample Sa. Accessory minerals include zircons, sphene and opaque Pr 6. Gradational sequences of biotite schists, biotite gneisses, Nd Supracrustal xeno- Sm 5. Contacts between the Er 1. The xenoliths sometimes Lu 0. The migmatitic Ta 0. Almost all the gneissic granites outcrops are Bi 0. The major and trace elements results of the studied samples are listed in Table 1. They have high SiO2 They plot mainly in the Table 1.
The rocks show slightly negative to slightly positive Eu S. Harker diagrams of the granitoids in the Kibi-Asamankese area, showing the major elements plotted against SiO2. Most of the major oxides display negative correlation with SiO2. On the orogenic granitoid norma- ged from 15 to 20 per studied sample.
All of them have very large lised plot Fig. In the multi-ele- U and Th contents of — ppm and 31— ppm, respectively, ment spider diagram normalised to primitive mantle Fig.
The U and Th concentrations of tive Nb—Ta, Ti and P anomalies and variable Sr anomalies, generally fourteen zircon grains from Sa are 69— ppm and 32— akin to those of the global average upper crust e. Compared with the composition of the lower crust, concordia age of The U and Th concentrations of nine- 4.
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Zircon U—Pb ages teen zircons from Sb are 71— ppm and 37— ppm, respec- tively. The CL images of representative zircons are shown in Fig. The Kibi-Asamankese granitoids contain anhedral to euhe- dral, equant to short prismatic zircons.
They are generally colour- 5. Discussion less, transparent to translucent and range in length from 30 to lm, and widths ranging from 25 to lm with aspect ratios 5.8 curiosidades sobre: NEPTUNO
Petrogenesis and geotectonic implication of 1. The equant grains display regular concentric zoning, with bright luminescence, while the short prismatic grains have The crustal growth and tectonic development of the Paleoprote- oscillatory or patchy zonation, with low luminescence; with other rozoic Birimian terrane in West Africa has remained the subject of grain types having unzoned core and oscillatory zoned rims debate over the years.
Different ideologies have resulted in the pro- Fig. All these features suggest a magmatic origin for the zircon posal of different models to explain the geotectonic evolution of grains. For example, a crustal growth S.
Similarly, ; Feybesse et al. Therefore the studied rocks were Numerous studies e. Magmas with such chemical characteristics are syn-COLG. In the tectonic setting discrimination diagram by generally postulated to have been generated in subduction related Pearce et al.
Floyd and Winchester, ; Rogers and mainly in the field defined by volcanic arc granites VAGfurther Hawkesworth, ; Sajona et al. While diagrams such as these do not S.
Chondrite normalising values are from Boynton The patterns show enrichments in the LREE and depletion in HREE; b trace element spider plot for the granitoids normalised against orogenic granites after Pearce et al. All the granitoid samples dis- emplaced in active margins. Therefore the patterns obtained for the studied samples Even though the granitoids were formed in the same tectonic are compatible with granitoids generated in immature island arc setting, the differences in, for example, REE-enrichment or ferro- or continental arc settings Brown et al.
Contamination and mixing were considered in deter- the granitoids were emplaced in an active margin. Furthermore, mining the composition of the granitoids. The obtained ages Table 2 in this study allowed the authors to No chemical analysis is available on the basaltic enclave in determine the intrusion and extrusion ages of magmatic rocks, the Sb.
However, analyses were carried out on metabasalts and age of their sources and metamorphism, and all these enabled the andesites from the Kibi-Winneba belt with which these granitoids stratigraphic order of the lithological units and geotectonic pro- are associated, and their REE chondrite-normalised curves vary cesses to be established. Metavolcanic rocks from the southern Ashanti belt, analysed by 5.
Implications for Birimian granitoids in Ghana Sylvester and Attohalso show similar patterns. Trace element compositions of magmas are also dependent on This study shows that the Kibi-Asamankese area does not differ protolith composition and, therefore, may not necessarily be indic- significantly from the other Birimian domains of the Leo Rise, with ative of the tectonic setting of magma formation e.
Roberts and respect to the nature and age of emplacement of the granitoids Clemens, However, the spatial and temporal relationships of e. Three generations of granitoids chemical characteristics indicate a subduction-related origin.
Cathodoluminescence CL images of representative zircons of the studied granitoids rocks from the Asamankese area. Pre-Eburnean gneissic biotite granites emplaced at ca. The the second generation is Eburnean belt type granitoid, ca. The ages of all the studied rocks fall respective neighbouring volcanic belts Fig. The latter hypothe- within the age range — Ma previously obtained from sis would be compatible with structural data recently acquired in local and regional studies Boher et al.
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Additional strain related to continuing accretion and form part of the Cape Coast basin granitoid association, with ages crustal shortening would be accommodated subsequently in spa- of — Ma that are comparable to those of the Sunyani tially well-defined and restricted high-strain zones, producing S2 and Kumasi basins Hirdes et al.
According to Hirdes et al. Hence, they may have One possible explanation is the compositional difference between been generated by similar processes. Petrogenetic hypotheses the granitoids in the two basins as indicated above.
Such an expla- advocated for these granitoids is partial melting of a basaltic proto- nation corroborates the observations of Percival and Sullivan lith metamorphosed to amphibolite facies e. These ; Condie, ; Martin,; Drommund and Defant, authors describe an age difference of several million years between This may be supported by the presence of rocks of mainly consanguineous biotite- and muscovite-bearing granitoid intru- basaltic composition and numerous enclaves Fig. A second hypothesis would involve a scenario in which con- country rocks amphibolite in the study area, which may repre- temporaneously formed neighbouring volcanic belts are accreted sent possible remnants of a basaltic crust that could have been par- progressively onto each other.
More specifically, in the study area, tially melted to yield the parental magmas of the hornblende the Sefwi belt was accreted onto the Ashanti belt prior to the accre- granodiorite. With few exceptions, the studied samples show a tion of the Bui belt onto the Sefwi belt. Zircon U—Pb concordia plots of the studied granitoid rocks from Kibi-Asamankese area of southeastern Ghana. This high degree of fractionation of the REE, as well as ment ratios indicate that the preferred source of the granitoids the strong HREE depletion and the concave shape of the HREE end was subducted hot oceanic crust with high degree of partial could be attributed to the presence of hornblende and garnet as melting.
The negative Nb and Ta anomalies sequence for meaningful application of the geochronological data. To differentiate between the various age events, a chronol- underlain by some Archaean basement e. Deformed metasedimentary neba belt and the adjacent Cape Coast basin. The lack of Archaean zircons in the Kibi-Asamankese granitoids, 6. Conclusion and the presence of abundant cores of Paleoproterozoic ages are indicative of juvenile magmatism, and repeated recycling thereof.
REE and trace element chemistry show variation in the oldest being the gneissic granites dated at The enrichment of and deformed prior to the succeeding intrusions.
Rare earth and trace ele- The Kibi-Asamankese biotite granites and S. The discrimination diagrams of geotectonic setting, showing the samples plotting almost exclusively within VAG.
Y, c Rb vs.
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Yb Pearce et al. Concentrations of elements are in ppm. Temporal evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the tion with the Eburnean progeny and have ages between eastern North China Craton. Origin and early growth rate of continents. A classification of Science Foundation of China Grant The paper has ben- volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1R2-diagram and major element analyses — efited from constructive reviews by Pascal Affaton and an anony- its relationships with current nomenclature.
A new metamorphic constraint for the Eburnean orogeny from Paleoproterozoic formations of the Man shield Aribinda and Tampelga countries, Burkina Faso. A model for trondhjemite—tonalite—dacite Anum, S. Geochemistry and Petrology of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian genesis and crustal growth via slab melting: Archean to modern comparisons.
Eastern Region of Ghana. The structural development of the early Proterozoic Ghana, Legon, pp.
Birimian and Tarkwaian rocks of southwest Ghana, West Africa. Geochemistry of an ultramafic-rodingite 14, — The Paleoproterozoic Ghanaian province: Developments in Floyd, P. Magma type and tectonic setting discrimination Petrology, vol.